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  • NEWS | EducatingAllLearners

    Line separator LA TEST NEWS Search Aug 12, 2020 5 min Parents vs. teachers? For special education, together is better. 342 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Aug 11, 2020 4 min Two Chicago families, two experiences: Stories spotlight challenges ahead for special education 98 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Aug 10, 2020 4 min Jones: Prioritize Active Learning. Age Matters. Teachers Hold the Key. Ways to Help Special Ed Kids, 206 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Aug 5, 2020 7 min Feeling Forgotten: Students With Special Needs Face Unique Challenges With Virtual Learning 242 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Aug 3, 2020 7 min Families of special education students feeling particular pain of distance learning in pandemic 238 3 likes. Post not marked as liked 3 Jul 30, 2020 2 min How special education is changing this upcoming school year 457 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Jul 29, 2020 3 min Reopening Classrooms With ‘Equity by Design’: How One NYC School Network Partnered With Architects 276 2 likes. Post not marked as liked 2 Jul 21, 2020 4 min How Students Benefit from a School Reopening Plan Designed for Those at the Margins 378 Post not marked as liked Jul 20, 2020 11 min How We Move Forward: Practicing Three Inclusive, Anti-Racist Mindsets for Reopening Schools 1,671 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Jun 30, 2020 6 min Planning the safe reopening of our schools 271 2 likes. Post not marked as liked 2 Jun 29, 2020 4 min ‘I only like mom school’: Why my autistic son thrived during the pandemic school closures 139 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Jun 25, 2020 4 min Leading Education Groups, Brooklyn Laboratory Charter Schools Release a Blueprint to Help Schools 173 Post not marked as liked Jun 25, 2020 4 min Coronavirus has changed school forever, let's make it an improvement 112 Post not marked as liked Jun 25, 2020 1 min Ed Department Issues New Guidance On Special Education During Pandemic 177 Post not marked as liked Jun 24, 2020 3 min Blackness, Disability, and Policing in American Schools 73 1 like. Post not marked as liked 1 Jun 24, 2020 6 min Principles of Equitable Schools in the Context of COVID-19 73 Post not marked as liked Jun 24, 2020 3 min Neurodiversity: How to Facilitate Learner Progress through Evidence-Based Support 151 Post not marked as liked Jun 23, 2020 3 min What will it take to have disability-inclusive education? 43 Post not marked as liked Jun 19, 2020 6 min Students with disabilities are receiving unequal education in remote learning 234 Post not marked as liked Jun 18, 2020 9 min How Remote Learning Upended NYC Students With Disabilities and Their Families 166 Post not marked as liked

  • Remote Access Services: Student Evaluation Template

    Remote Access Services: Student Evaluation Template National Deaf Center on Postsecondary Outcomes (NDC) Institutions can use student evaluations of remote services to ensure that they’re providing what students need. This evaluation template gathers structured input from students regarding the quality of the technology and the communication access services. LINK TO RESOURCE

  • Special Educators Serve as a Source of Stability in Uncertain Times

    Special Educators Serve as a Source of Stability in Uncertain Times Kim Hymes Keywords special education, cognitive disability, accessibility, accommodations, multiple disabilities, attention, online learning The lives of our students and their families were turned upside down this spring when our elementary school closed for in-person learning. The abruptness, uncertainty, change, and sadness were certainly experiences and emotions shared by most students, but they were amplified for many students with disabilities. As an elementary special education teacher in a public school in Bethesda, Maryland, this experience made me realize just how vital our role is—not only for students, but for their families as well. During this time of instability, students and their caregivers were looking to us for a sense of normalcy, continuity, support, and leadership. I’m proud of our school’s approach to including students with disabilities in every facet of our school community. Inclusion is a current that runs throughout our school. It’s an assumption for our entire staff. Perhaps most importantly, it’s a mentality that students without disabilities embrace, recognizing that differences in learning, development, or motor skills are not deficiencies, and understanding that we all have unique qualities that enrich our school community. Thankfully, I have colleagues who made it their mission to be a source of stability for our students and families. Our team of special educators—which includes teachers and paraprofessionals—all united around the idea that we would tackle this challenge together by continuing to hold our students and ourselves to the highest expectations. This was our starting point, and everything that we considered always had to answer this call. This mindset helped us get through the uncertain times, daily challenges, and range of emotions that were felt by adults and students alike. Now, as I prepare for virtual learning, which will last through at least February 2021, I’m considering what went well during the spring and how I will improve for the new school year. Knowing we can all learn from each other, I’m humbly sharing my reflections and ideas. I hope it contributes to your own thinking for how to best support students with disabilities and their families. Become a Source of Stability When our school closed in March 2020, I immediately asked myself a series of questions to help prioritize my efforts for transferring to virtual learning: -What do my students need to feel secure and stable, with a sense of normalcy? -What made our in-person schooling successful? -What strategies, resources, and tools were most effective when we were meeting in person? -What social-emotional challenges can I anticipate based on my knowledge of my students and our transfer to virtual learning? The more I thought about these questions, the more my blurry picture of virtual learning came into focus. Immediately, I realized that my students thrive when they know and can anticipate their daily routine. I know they work best when they have direct, explicit instruction; opportunities for pre-teaching, frontloading, and vocabulary development; and guided practice delivered in a small group environment. I know they can excel when they have access to instruction that meets them where they are and that challenges them to grow. And I know they need a trusted adult to support their social-emotional needs. In practice, being a source of stability translated into making logistical and academic information accessible and reliable for my students and their families, such as: -Creating a reliable schedule that students could access on their own to increase their independence. -Providing families with regular communication about the group and independent work for the week, with updates on how their child was faring. -Presenting an attitude that reflected continued high expectations grounded in support for how I would facilitate our new classroom environment. I adopted the slogan “Same great students, different classroom environment” to help us remember that even in these turbulent times, we remain the same caring, humorous, hardworking group of students and teachers. Much had changed. But at our core, much remained the same. I won’t sugarcoat our experience. Many days were full of challenges and hiccups. Technology glitches sparked challenging behaviors (which happens to all of us!). Lack of access to some of the tools we routinely used in the classroom caused frustration for me and my students. We tackled a steep learning curve to find new and innovative ways to interact and engage with each other. But we got through, made it work, and learned to embrace and truly practice the art of being flexible. "I make sure to remind all my students that they’re the same great group of kids—we just have a different type of classroom now." Respect, Recognize, and Appreciate the Family-School Partnership Throughout the spring, and in anticipation of the 2020–21 school year, family members have been fulfilling multiple roles they never envisioned: caregiver, chief technology officer, and chief academic officer—all while doing their best to carry out their daily professional responsibilities as well. I see my role as helping families know that they’re not alone in tackling these challenges. In practice, this looked like: -Making virtual IEP team meetings run smoothly by communicating with parents about their goals and concerns prior to the meeting, creating a detailed agenda to support meeting facilitation, and providing timely follow-up documents. -Creating a Google Classroom to serve as a one-stop shop for all information needed for a school day and week. -Creating a customized, color-coded schedule for each student, with all the logistical information needed to participate in each class, and teaching students to use Google calendar to view their schedule. -Creating a weekly independent work schedule that was emailed to parents on Sunday before the start of the school week. -Creating and using social stories to help explain and respond to unexpected events, such as difficulties with technology. -Troubleshooting technological challenges. Support from a parent was especially important for one of my students, Sophie (name has been changed), who has significant cognitive and physical disabilities. During in-person schooling, Sophie worked with two amazing paraprofessionals throughout the school day (one in the morning, one in the afternoon). Sophie needs adult support for her academic, cognitive, communication, motor, and functional needs. I tried to imagine how a shift to virtual learning would work for Sophie. How could we anticipate her needs and address them in a virtual setting? The answer was the continued development and growth of a meaningful partnership between Sophie’s mom, a paraprofessional, and myself. In practice, this partnership meant constant communication about what worked well in the instructional lesson, what needed to be adjusted, and how to integrate high- and low-tech supports to deliver instruction and measure Sophie’s knowledge and skills. It meant: -Giving Sophie a choice in the instructional content to gain her buy-in. -Customizing Sophie’s academic materials to draw her in with high-interest topics that reinforced academic skills. -Being flexible with Sophie’s schedule so that we could deliver instruction in shorter bursts of time and during times of the day when she was more alert. Due to her disability, it takes Sophie an immense amount of energy to engage in academics. After her mom suggested that Sophie take a nap in the middle of the day, we immediately saw an incredible improvement in her engagement and mood during afternoon classes. -Being flexible, nimble, and without ego to make adjustments that would allow Sophie to thrive in this new educational setting. Our strong partnership was vital to Sophie’s growth. Autonomy and Trust With School Leadership All that I have discussed wouldn’t have been possible without support from our principal and assistant principal. From the beginning of the school year, they demonstrated their investment and commitment to supporting students with disabilities—and to supporting us as special educators. Their approach only strengthened during our shift to virtual learning. Specifically, our school leaders: -Served as a resource by ensuring that we were aware of and comfortable with implementing the new protocols required to carry out special education in a virtual setting. -Listened, advised, and had an open-door policy. They sought us out and encouraged us to ask questions about our new learning environment. -Participated in our weekly special education team meetings to listen, learn, and advise in real time. -Challenged us to consider how to best organize our staff to meet our new compliance requirements and provide innovative instruction. -Prioritized staff training about how to use online platforms, which was especially important for our paraprofessionals who needed a thorough understanding to facilitate instruction or support. -Enabled special educators to create our own schedules with our students. My goal was to create continuity with my students, so allowing me to design a schedule that prioritized my students’ needs was important. For example, during in-person learning, I would meet with many students in a small resource-room setting to support reading, writing, and math interventions and supports. We replicated this schedule within a virtual setting. Perhaps the most important way our administrators have prioritized the needs of students with disabilities is by allowing us to loop, or advance to the next grade, with our students. As we will not be going back to an in-person learning environment until February 2021 (at the earliest), it’s important that teachers who already know students’ unique needs be allowed to move with them into the next school year. We’ve developed trusting relationships with our students, we know their families, and we’ve worked to create their “new normal” when it comes to the school environment. Being able to continue with our students will put them at ease and make them more available for learning in the new school year. ​ Reflections What we learned/big takeaway We must continue to keep expectations high. How we reach those goals might look different, but the expectation itself remains intact. I made sure that the students I worked with knew that while we were learning virtually, I was going to expect the same level of commitment and effort from them, because I know they’re capable of achieving great things! It’s essential for teachers to convey a sense of making this new normal work, both for students and for families. Students take their cues from how their teachers respond. Our response needs to be that while school may “look” different, excellent teaching and learning still occur. It’s also important to remind students that even in a virtual learning setting, a lot about school remains the same. Keep the themes that kids expect in school, keep the rules that apply in school, and keep the high expectations for student achievement. I used the summer to work toward figuring out how to best adapt instructional strategies that have been dependent on in-person interactions. For example, I’ve been trying out online math manipulatives and online reading intervention tools. This also helped me be aware of what kind of materials students needed that couldn’t be provided online. What we are still figuring out Focus on the good, and set the tone and expectation that educators will make this the best possible learning experience for each student during this uncertain time. What I would tell other leaders during this time Resources Sample IEP Meeting Agenda - In this case study, Kim Hymes introduces several tools she used during virtual learning, including this sample IEP meeting agenda that was filled in and shared with parents prior to the meeting. Sample Student Schedule - Kim noted that her students thrive best with a predictable schedule and routine. This is an example of a schedule that would be personalized and shared with each student and their families. Social Story regarding Zoom - Another tool that Kim used with her students as needed, this social story addresses situations where Zoom meetings don’t end or begin on time. Sample IEP Snapshot - This resource is an example of an abbreviated form of a student’s IEP used by Kim. This resource can be a helpful tool while planning for services and support. How to Break Down Communication Barriers Between Teachers and Families - Kim credits some of her success in the spring to regular communication with families. This resource breaks down common barriers that can get in the way of building a relationship between teachers and families. Creating a PBIS Behavior Teaching Matrix for Online Instruction - A key element of Kim’s school’s philosophy is high expectations. This resource from Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) helps schools translate behavioral expectations into the virtual environment. Offline Choice Boards: How Are You Integrating Offline Learning Into Your Online Class? - One strategy that Kim uses in the case study is that of student choice in learning activities. This resource contains one such example that blends online learning with offline activities. Supporting Learners With Significant Disabilities: 5 Ideas for Virtual Education - Kim gives an example of one student whose paraprofessional support was transferred to the virtual classroom in a creative way. This resource provides a few other ideas for how school staff can support students with disabilities during virtual learning. School background Bethesda Elementary School is located in Bethesda, Maryland, an urbanized community just northwest of Washington, D.C. The school serves approximately 670 students in kindergarten through fifth grade, 10% of whom are students with disabilities, 10% of whom receive free and reduced lunch, and approximately 20% of whom are English language learners. Bethesda Elementary School serves students with disabilities in a variety of ways, including through a Home School Model approach by which students access the general education curriculum in their neighborhood school alongside their peers without disabilities using a variety of instructional models that may include instruction in a general education environment and/or a self-contained setting. In addition, Bethesda Elementary School has a School/Community-Based program with services designed for students who have the most significant intellectual disabilities and/or multiple disabilities. About the Author Kim Hymes is a special education teacher at a public elementary school in Bethesda, Maryland. In this role, she works with students with a range of disabilities and across multiple grade levels. Before becoming a special education teacher, Kim was the director of federal outreach at the National Center for Learning Disabilities, where she designed and implemented NCLD’s legislative and regulatory agenda to improve the lives of children with disabilities, their families, and the educators who work on their behalf. < Previous Next >

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Blog Posts (72)

  • Parents vs. teachers? For special education, together is better.

    This article originally appeared in the Christian Science Monitor on August 10, 2020 by Hallie Golden. For one week in March, Patty Leitz watched her 7-year-old son, Michael, who has been diagnosed with severe autism and is nonverbal, not follow her directions or even respond when she’d try to teach him at home. Then everything changed. Michael’s special education teacher started sending her not only a video greeting for Michael and lesson plans and timing for everything every day, but also a five- to six-minute video for Ms. Leitz. In it, the teacher walked her through exactly how to teach her son. “As soon as I came along and imitated the teacher and used the exact words that the teacher uses, all of a sudden he’s complying and doing everything immediately,” says the Columbus, Ohio, mother. The daily lessons for both student and parent meant that Michael was keeping up with his skills. But they also empowered his mother, helping her realize that she can be an effective part of his education. “To be able to sit there and watch my kid count money, knew a quarter is 25 cents, that he knew how to tell time, it was amazing,” she says. Families and educators of the estimated 7 million special education students in the United States faced a myriad of challenges in the spring, as well as some out-of-the-box successes, after the coronavirus forced many to suddenly navigate remote learning. Heading into the fall with a majority of the nation’s largest school districts planning to start the year online-only, parents and teachers again face the task of managing learning. This time around, though, adults won’t be starting from scratch, but building off of the long list of lessons learned in the spring. Among them: Collaboration is key. “This is where the parent is critical,” says Sean Smith, special education professor at the University of Kansas, who says the crucial role of guardians, particularly at the elementary level, was a surprise for some in the spring. “Part of the job of the teacher is to actually empower and interact and facilitate with the parent or the adult.” Already districts, often asked about how they are planning to help their special education population, are prioritizing solutions and training. Some schools have explored offering evening or weekend support, in order to better accommodate families where parents work full time, says Professor Smith. The idea of having special education students start in person has also been suggested, with some parents petitioning for it, and some districts planning to give students priority access to buses to get them to on-site instruction. Some students already have been attending summer school. Special education in the U.S. is based on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA, which requires that districts provide individualized, appropriate, and free education for children with disabilities. It includes specifications about creating each student’s individualized education program, or IEP, which details annual goals and service needs. In addition to academic instruction, some students require physical and occupational therapy, all of which has often been difficult to provide during the pandemic and has resulted in lawsuits by parents. The Department of Education, while encouraging flexibility, has generally not allowed waivers for IEP rules and has been firm in its message to schools: Find a way. Lisa Thomas, associate director at the American Federation of Teachers, a union, says after the switch to remote learning in the spring, she noticed teachers and specialists, including occupational and physical therapists, working more collaboratively with each other and parents in order to adapt to the new reality. “This pandemic forced a level of collaboration that they typically just didn’t have the opportunity to do in a regular school day,” she says. In her own family, says Ms. Thomas, she saw a Maryland district develop a remote learning service plan as a supplement to her daughter’s IEP. With the teacher, physical therapist, occupational therapist, and other specialists all working together, they conducted an audit of her daughter’s services and figured out how all but seven hours of her 32-hour IEP could be done remotely. Even so, working together will likely mean frequent reevaluation of what’s working and what isn’t. In March, when Chris and Jill Reffett helped their 9-year-old daughter, who has been diagnosed with Down syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, participate in a Zoom social hour set up by her teacher, it was clear almost immediately it wasn’t going to work for her. The sessions were meant to give the students in the second grade classroom in Lawrence, Kansas, a chance to be around each other as they did an art project or some other type of activity together. “She couldn’t get that they could actually see her on the other side. And to her it was noisy, it was uncontrolled,” says Ms. Reffett. “It made me a little bonkers. So for her, with ADHD, it was too much.” Mr. Reffett says they ended up only having their daughter take part a few times, before skipping the social sessions altogether. Julie Shepard and her husband in Spokane, Washington, had a similar experience with their 7-year-old son, Demetri, who has been diagnosed with autism and is legally blind. For two months in the spring, Ms. Shepard managed to carve out time for his general education and special education lessons, as well as his more specialized services, including vision therapies. But the tablet he was using was too small for him to see clearly, and Demetri, who typically loves school, was becoming increasingly frustrated and angry trying to learn remotely. In May, she realized that this wasn’t working for her or her son: “It’s full time, and I can’t do my job and do his teaching full time,” she says. They temporarily switched to just focusing on general education lessons and attending only one digital therapy appointment a week. The change improved his mood and allowed Ms. Shepard to keep up with everything, but his instructors told her he is falling behind. This fall, overcoming situations like those will occupy special education teachers, who are already gleaning insights from the spring. Kareem Neal teaches 15 high school students in a self-contained special education classroom in Phoenix. In the spring, he started holding virtual class meetings every Monday with students and their families, and once a day one-on-one virtual lessons with each of his pupils. The result, he says, was a lot more communication and a stronger relationship with each family. He also says he has a better understanding of his students from observing them at home, pointing to one in particular as an example. “I think it was really a telling thing to me to say, ‘Wow, he is in my classroom getting all the attention he can because he may go home and not get much,’” says Mr. Neal.   For some students, though, being at home may offer fewer distractions than a busy classroom, says Denise Stile Marshall, CEO of the Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates, a national organization that helps to protect the rights of students with disabilities. A child may also thrive off of virtual sessions in which they are the central focus of their teacher’s attention, she adds. For her own 7-year-old grandchild, who has been diagnosed with Down syndrome, she says simply being out of his special education classroom and among his typically developing siblings at home helped him: “He’s been saying a lot more words spontaneously because of that and really imitating what they’re doing all day long.” Overall, she says she has mixed feelings about the fall. “[I'm hopeful] that we all can take what we’ve learned from this process into the new school year. But we also are concerned because of the unknowns. We don’t know how long this is all going to last. We don’t know what the continued effect is going to be for some students or whether they’ll receive the services that they need. And that’s worrisome."

  • Two Chicago families, two experiences: Stories spotlight challenges ahead for special education

    This article was published on August 10, 2020, in Chalkbeat by Samatha Smylie. As part of a summer program for children with disabilities, Nicole Abreu’s daughter, a rising third-grader at Jahn Elementary on Chicago’s North Side, has been able to receive speech-language therapy, services for the visually impaired, and help with her assignments from both a teacher and a paraprofessional. “The teacher is making the best of a very difficult situation because she has my daughter, who is a rising third-grader, and also like some middle school boys. She has been working super hard to try and accommodate all of us along with the paraprofessional,” said Abreu. Her experience hasn’t been perfect. She hasn’t received the occupational or physical therapy guaranteed by her individualized education program. While she has had some access to a social worker through assignments, they haven’t been able to have teletherapy sessions. But Abreu has had a far better time getting the necessary special education services for her daughter than Anna, a mother of a rising fourth-grader with dyslexia. Anna, who asked Chalkbeat to withhold her last name and her son’s name due to privacy concerns, has been acting as both a mother and a special education classroom assistant to get her son to focus on his schoolwork. Her son is currently enrolled at a therapeutic day school in LaGrange, in a southwest suburb of Chicago, through Chicago Public Schools. “His teachers are just expecting everything to be done on zoom. To be quite honest that doesn’t work for my son. It’s overwhelming to him and he doesn’t learn very well,” Anna said. Looking ahead at the fall, she needs more guidance from his teachers to assist him with his schoolwork and wants more collaboration between her and the teacher to create a learning environment at home that’s similar to school. Students with special needs have been particularly hard hit by school closures in Chicago during the coronavirus pandemic. Vital services, many of which can only be done in person, disappeared for weeks when campuses shuttered in March — and some students weren’t able to access them for the rest of the school year. Some parents were hoping that the extended school year would give their child a chance to make up for lost time. But, they found programming riddled with the same issues as the spring: limited access to clinicians, difficulty navigating online applications, and not enough time with teachers and classroom assistants. The experiences of these two families — which show how difficult it has been for schools to serve children with special needs outside of the school building and just how wildly such services can vary by individual school — spotlight the challenges ahead as Chicago starts the year remotely. Chicago Public Schools said in a statement that the district prioritized students who displayed the need for summer programming, and the goal of the program was to prevent “significant skill loss” caused by the interruption of services. Even before the coronavirus pandemic, the extended school year had problems, Mary Fahey Hughes, special education parent liaison at Raise Your Hand Illinois, said. “During non-COVID times, there’s not a continuum of staff to serve kids. There’s a huge learning curve for educators getting to know the kids and their IEPs. Two to three weeks into it before any learning starts with a new teacher, and then it’s two or three weeks later and it’s over,” Fahey Hughes said. She said that this issue has worsened with remote learning. Chris Yun, education policy analyst at Access Living, a disability rights advocacy organization, said that parents who were approved for summer programming were hoping to regain some learning lost over the spring. “During the spring, people was like, ‘This is an emergency situation, we just need to endure this. Then in the summertime, maybe we can come back, restart and then we can recoup whatever is lost.’ Because of the COVID situation, summer just became the same thing as a spring situation,” Yun said. With spring and summer done, advocates and parents are wondering what Chicago will do to improve special education services for the fall. In its tentative plan, the district had said that it would bring back some students in special education for full-time, in-person schooling, while others would select either all-remote or a hybrid model. But on Wednesday, the district announced that it will start the school year all-remote because of rising numbers of coronavirus cases in the city. Schools chief Janice Jackson pledged that the district will pay attention to the needs of special education students by releasing detailed guidance for one-on-one support and small group instruction remotely. Even before Chicago made the announcement, Anna and Abreu were going to choose remote learning for their children due to health concerns. However, they are worried about how it will go in the fall. “I’m worried that he’s not going to get his reading instruction because he struggled to read. He struggled with social emotional growth and him not getting the socializing with other kids and that’s the hard part,” Anna said. Abreu hopes that the fall is more like the summer for her daughter. “There was more live instruction during the summer and she’s getting the actual minutes in her individualized education plan and not a small proportion of them,” she said. In the fall, special education advocates want school districts throughout the nation to take steps to ensure that students have access to teachers, classroom assistants, and clinicians so that students can receive additional services. Meghan Whittaker, director of policy and advocacy at the National Center for Disabilities based in Washington, D.C., said that school districts around the country will need to develop a robust infrastructure and capacity to provide special education services to students remotely. “If you haven’t yet found a way to deliver speech therapy to your students virtually, you’ve got to find a platform that works for you and make sure you’ve got the personnel available to do that one-on-one with students or in small groups,” she said. In addition to providing services, Yun, at Access Living, said that schools need more staff to help students with their work online, IEP teams must assess loss of learning over the spring and summer, and work with families to create new goals for students. For Yun this isn’t just about students with disabilities achieving academically — special education services can give them critical life skills. “For every child in the US at this moment, we have lots of concern about their learning. But, for one particular group of students, the difficulty is much harder because of the pandemic, lack of adequate support and bureaucracy, ” she said.

  • Jones: Prioritize Active Learning. Age Matters. Teachers Hold the Key. Ways to Help Special Ed Kids,

    This article originally appeared in the 74 and is authored by EALA Founding Partner NCLD Executive Director Lindsay Jones. This spring marked three years since the groundbreaking Supreme Court ruling on a case involving a fifth-grader with autism, Endrew F. The decision set a new standard: School districts must provide an education that allows each student with a disability to make meaningful academic progress. Despite legal wins and a growing body of research that shows that most students with disabilities can perform at or above grade level, the proficiency and graduation rates for students with disabilities continue to trail those of their peers. The U.S. education system has yet to find a way to accelerate learning, or, as TNTP defines it, “put every student on a fast track to grade level,” at scale. COVID-19 increased the size of the problem, but it also might provide a terrific opportunity to attack it. After the virus shuttered schools in March, experts predicted that students would begin the next school year potentially up to a year behind in math. Instructional losses like this will only exacerbate the achievement gap for students with disabilities and other historically marginalized populations (including, among others, students of color, low-income students and English learners), given their inequitable access to distance learning opportunities. The acceleration conversation can no longer be about a few lucky students. Our schools now have an opportunity to identify and scale successful approaches that can help everyone make enough progress to catch up and truly thrive. Policymakers and schools can draw from research and pockets of success to mitigate instructional loss from COVID and reimagine general and special education for years to come. To accelerate learning, students must make more than a year of growth in one academic year — something children at very few schools did even before the pandemic. In some instances, efforts to meet struggling students at their level and remediate education only exacerbate the problem. But there are bright spots, and we can learn from those. The California Acceleration Project has worked with community colleges to successfully redesign remedial college courses. Remedial classes — typically designed to help students make up only content they’ve missed — were restructured to become accelerated courses. Because of the redesign, these courses allowed students to complete prerequisite and college-level content at the same time and increased their likelihood of completing the college-level course by 2.3 to 4.5 times. High schools that serve students who are not on track to graduate — often referred to as acceleration schools —prioritize how much students have learned over how much time they have spent in a classroom and embrace student-led, project-based instruction. Outcomes vary, but some of these schools, including OPPortunity Academy Hartford, have higher graduation rates than traditional high schools in the same town or state. In math, skills build on one another. In order to accelerate the process, Teach to One provides a personalized learning model that ensures that students have the opportunity to gain math skills at the right moment for them. This approach requires creating a custom math curriculum using a specialized algorithm for each child, focusing on the most needed prerequisite skills while exposing students to grade-level content. Research on the approach is mixed, but Joel Rose, founder of the organization that created Teach to One, asserts that if enough time is spent meeting kids where they are, it will ultimately accelerate learning. These approaches are different, and context is critical to their success, but there are common threads across these and other successful strategies. Reorganize and focus instruction. Requiring students to follow the same curriculum and learning progression tethers them to a growth trajectory that will at best run parallel to grade-level standards. Instead, acceleration must reorganize and focus future instruction. Successful efforts resist the pressure to cover everything and instead condense material, reduce redundancies in learning progressions and integrate grade-level and prerequisite skills. Focus on strengths. Research shows that embracing individual strengths and using those to personalize instruction and identify necessary accommodations will maximize learning and pique student interest. Twice-exceptional students — children who are both gifted and have a disability — have been a test case in this approach. Models that improve outcomes are those that prioritize student strengths when designing a learning plan and incorporate accommodations to fill gaps as necessary. Prioritize active learning and deep engagement. Engaging, rigorous content that is aligned to student interests matters greatly and can dramatically improve learning outcomes. Students meet expectations and dedicate more effort when the material is compelling and relates to their life. Challenging content is essential, and some acceleration models offer project-based learning that requires students to engage with their community or apply new skills and knowledge to solve real-life problems, usually over a long period of time. Age matters. Schools must tailor models for student age and development. Research shows that reteaching unlearned content is effective in early elementary grades and is necessary to layer skills for more advanced standards. However, in older elementary grades and beyond, a focus on remedial content is detrimental. Older students fare much better when schools foster critical thinking, self-regulation and self-motivation to help with new grade-level content retention. Teachers hold the key. Educator knowledge is a critical component of all models. Any wide-scale acceleration effort will reimagine education, and teachers will need tools and resources to ensure that they implement the strategies consistently and appropriately. Research shows that any school improvement model must include adequate professional support and growth. Changes in education implementation will fail unless educators receive high-quality professional development and opportunities for collaborative problem-solving. Accelerating learning won’t be easy. For decades, parents, teachers, advocates and policymakers have fought to improve special education and change students’ learning trajectories, but there are still significant achievement gaps between students with disabilities and their peers. The same is true for other marginalized populations. Regardless, we cannot let schools return to “normal” after the COVID-19 pandemic. This is an opportunity to reimagine instruction and adopt approaches that forever change learning progressions for all students. Let’s learn from what works as schools adopt policies and curriculum for the 2020-21 academic year and apply that to rethink what is possible for 7.1 million students in special education. Lindsay E. Jones is president and CEO of the National Center for Learning Disabilities, an organization whose mission is to improve the lives of the 1 in 5 children and adults nationwide with learning and attention issues. You can find NCLD’s “Planning for Equity and Inclusion: A Guide to Reopening Schools” here.

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  • TOGEL HADIAH TERBESAR | TOGEL DISKON BESAR | PASARAN TOGEL TERBAIK | SITUS TOGEL TERPERCAYA | DEPOSIT 10 RIBU

    TOGEL HADIAH TERBESAR | TOGEL DISKON BESAR | PASARAN TOGEL TERBAIK | SITUS TOGEL TERPERCAYA LOMBA TOGEL TOTAL HADIAH 120 JUTA UNTUK 1 PASARAN 40 JUTA NANA4D mempersebahkan Lomba togel online hadiah 120 juta hadiah terbesar special natal dan tahun baru 2021-2022.hadiah besar 40 juta 1 pasran untuk 21 pemenang setiap harinya lomba dipasaran sydney,singpore/morocco 19.00 wib hongkong total hadiah lomba harian sebesar 120 juta. Togel merupukan sebuah permain yang bernama toto namun lebih banyak dikenal sebagai togel,didalam sebuah permainan togel anda bisa mendapatkan hadiah dengan modal yang kecil disetiap harinya jika anda berhasil menebek angka keluar dalam permainan togel tersebut,hadiah yang diberikan juga merupakan hadiah besar dengan modal kecil dan hadiah besar lainnya yang dimana hadiah akan bisa lebih besar dari yang terbesar berdasarkan bettingan yang dilakukan. Togel merupakan sebuah permainan tertua yang pernah ada dan terkenal keberadaannya,pada jaman dahulu anda dapat memainkan permainan togel ini dengan datang dan memasang kepada bandar togel darat / bandar yang ada didaerah terdekat.namun seiring berjalannya waktu dimana sekarang yang telah memasuki jaman modern pula anda dapat dengan mudah menemukan bandar togel yang berbasis atau yang dikenal bandar togel online,bandar togel online resmi,togel online hadiah besar dengan bet 100*perak termurah. LINK ALTERNATIF DAFTAR LINK ALTERNATIF PREDIKSI DAN LIVEDRAW KLIK DISINI CARA MENCARI DAN MENDAFTAR TOGEL ONLINE HADIAH TERBESAR Di zaman digital seperti sekarang ini anda dapat dengan mudah untuk menemukannnya namun adakalahnya anda juga harus berhati-hati dalam menentukan sebuah permainan karena semaikan maraknya permainan ini semakin banyak pula sebuah situs atau bo togel online yang tidak sesuai dengan expentasi yang diberikan atau bisa dikatakan dengan situs bo togel online yang abal - abal dan,tentunya itu semua dapat membuat anda mengalami kerugian,baik itu dalam melakukan deposit ataupun withdraw hasil kemenangan. ketika anda ingin memilih sebuah situs bo bandar togel online,agen togel online,togel terpercaya,anda dapat melakukan dengan serch digeogle,ketika anda susah melakukan serch digeogle anda dapat melihat dan memilih situs togel yang resmi dengan hadiah terbesar seberapa terkenal dan populer keuntungan dan seberapa besar situs bo togel online tersebut contohnya Nana4D bandar togel online yang memiliki semua dari kriteria yang sudah dijelaskan. Anda dapat mengetahui seberapa besar dan trand situs bo togel online NANA4D ini : langkah pertama anda harus mencari situs NANA4D di geogle pencarin di hp ataupun laptop anda kemudian anda klik NANA4D hingga anda berada masuk dalam halaman utama NANA4D. ketika anda sudah berada didalam halaman utama NANA4D anda dapat melihat hal-hal menarik yang NANA4D berikan kepada para member NANA4D,seperti hadiah besar 40juta 1 pasaran untuk 21 pemenang di setiap harinya dan dengan total hadiah 120 juta. Juga dapat menemukan hal menarik NANA4D yang membuat anda sangat penasaran seperti hadiah besar 4D 9800 juta,3D 980 Ratus,2D 98 puluh.anda sebagai para member NANA4D juga akan mendapatkan full diskon-diskon besar yang NANA4D berikan kepada para member dan dengan bet 100*(perak) termurah pastinya.NANA4D merupakan bo togel online resmi dan terbesar diwilayah asia dan sudah terkenal keberadaannya. NANA4D merupakan Bandar togel online resmi terbesar,terpercaya dan,terpopuler diwilayah asia.NANA4D merupakan bandar togel online terpopuler yang sangat diminati oleh banyak orang dan NANA4D juga merupakan bandar togel online terlama diwilayah asia keberadaannya yang sudah berdiri pada tahun 2012 lalu dan masih berdiri hingga sampai saat ini.maka NANA4D sangat direkomendasikan sekali bagia anda yang sudah tidak tertarik ataupun merasa tidak puas dengan si bo togel online anda sebelumnya,alangkah baiknya anda mencoba dan bergabung bersama dengan NANA4D. LOMBA Togel Online Di Bandar NANA4D LOMBA TOGEL ONLINE 120 JUTA HADIAH TERBESAR | Bandar Togel Hadiah Terbesar Bandar Togel Online Hadiah Prize 123 Dibayar | Bo Togel Hadiah Terbesar Online Via Dana,Gopay,OVO Dan Linkaja KELEBIHAN BERMAIN SITUS TOGEL ONLINE TERPERCAYA NANA4D adalah sebuah bandar togel online terbesar resmi dan terpercaya,yang selalu meng-utamakan kepuasan para member NANA4D seperti diskon-diskon besar menarik dan hadiah yang besar pula nomilnya yang selalu diberikan NANA4D kepada setiap para member setiap setia NANA4D. NNANA4D adalah situs bo togel online resmi yang selau meng-utamakan kepuasan dan kenyamanan para member NANA4D selalu hadir dengan hadiah besar dari yang terbesar dengan bet 100*(perak) termurah,juga dilengkapi dengan full diskon besar yang terdapat pada setiap pemainan NANA4D,yang dimana disetiap diskon tersebut akan dipotong langsung secara otomatis ketikan anda ingin melakukan pasangan disetiap bettingan yang anda lakukan. HADIAH BET DISKON NANA4D 4D - 66% x 3000. 3D - 59% x 400. 2D - 29% x 70. 2D -DEPAN/TENGAH/BELAKANG 29% x 70. COLOK BEBAS 6% X1,5 X3 X4,5 X 6 + (MODAL). COLOK NAGA 10% X20 X 35 + (MODAL). COLOK JITU 2% X8 + (MODAL). SHIO 2% X9 + (MODALN). KOMBINASI 8% X2,75 + (MODAL). HADIAH BET FULL - 4D x 9800 - 3D x 980 - 2D x 98 HADIAH BET TEPAT BB - 4D : X 4.000 - 3D : X 400 - 2D : X 70 BONUS CHASBACK UP TO 20% Bonus Kekalahan berlaku untuk semua jenis LIVE GAMES Bonus Cashback akan dihitung dari total kekalahan selama 1 minggu ( Senin - Minggu ) Bonus Cashback dibagikan setiap hari Selasa (paling lambat pukul 23:59 WIB) Minimal kekalahan untuk mendapatkan Cashback adalah Rp.50.000,- dalam 1 minggu ( Senin - Minggu ) Berikut Cashback yang akan didapatkan sesuai dengan total kekalahan LEVEL 1 = Rp.50.000.- Sampai Rp.10.000.000.- Bonus Cashback 5% LEVEL 2 = Rp.10.000.001.- Sampai Rp.50.000.000.- Bonus Cashback 10% LEVEL 3 = Rp.50.000.001.- Keatas Bonus Cashback 10+20% KETERANGAN BONUS LEVEL CHASBACK Jika total kekalahan dalam 1 minggu tidak mencapai Rp.50.000,- maka otomatis gagal untukmendapatkan bonus cashback tersebut. Segala bentuk keputusan dari pihak Nana4d adalah mutlak dan tidak dapat diganggu gugat. Pihak Nana4D berhak untuk membatalkan bonus atau tidak memberi bonus apabila kedapatan melakukan kecurangan atau melanggar ketentuan yang ada. BEBERAPA PASARAN TOGEL TERBAIK DAN JADWAL RESULT PASARAN TOGEL TERBAIK NANA4D NANA4D merupakan bandar togel online resmi lengkap dan terpercaya dengan memiliki 86 pasarang terbaik yang selalu disedia kan untuk para member setia NANA4D.pada banyaknya pasaran - pasaran yang tersedia didalam sebuah situs togel online NANA4D hanya beberapa saja yang menjadi top 4 terbaik didalam dunia seperti SINGAPORE*(SGP,SYDNEY*(SDY),HONGKONG*(HK) DAN,TOTO MACAU,Berikut ini adalah jadwal dan result. JADWAL TOGEL ONLINE SYDNEY*(SDY)POOLS. -Senin - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Selasa - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Rabu - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Kamis - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Jum'at - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Sabtu - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. - Minggu - Buka Result Singpore(Sgp) Pukul 14.00 Wib. JADWAL TOGEL ONLINE SINGPORE*(SGP)POOLS. - Senin - Buka Pukul 17.45 Wib. - Selasa - Tutup. - Rabu - Buka Pukul 17.45 Wib. - Kamis - Buka Pukul 17.45 Wib. - Jum'at - Tutup. - Sabtu - Buka Pukul 17.45 Wib. JADWAL TOGEL ONLINE HONGKONG*(HK)POOLS. -Senin - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. - Selasa - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. - Rabu - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. - Kamis - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. - Jum'at - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. - Sabtu - Buka Dengan Result Hongkon(Hk) Pukul 23.00 Wib. 86 PASARAN TOGEL TERBAIK SITUS TOGEL TERPERCAYA NANA4D NANA4D memiliki 86 pasaran terlengkap dan terbaik didunia.setelah anda mengetahui top 4 pasaran terbaik NANA4D anda juga dapat mengetahui 86 pasaran terbaik lainnya yang dimiliki NANA4D ini merupaka suatu perluang bagi anda para member NANA4D untuk dapat menentukan dipasaran yang mana anda lebih sering memenangkan permain ataupun sering disebut (HOKI) dalam 86 pasaran tersebut,didalam 86 pasran tersebut memiliki kemungkinan besar yang akan membuat para member jacpot dengan hadiah besar,Berikut Ini 86 Pasaran terbaik NANA4D. SYDNEY SINGAPORE HONGKONG MOROCCO 00:00 WIB INDIANA MIDDAY KENTUCKY MIDDAY TEXAS DAY (SENIN OFF) PHUKET NIGHT VIRGINIA DAY LAOS MIDNIGHT KANSAS DAY NORTH CAROLINA DAY COLORADO DAY MOROCCO 03:00 WIB OREGON 03:00 WIB MONTANA DAY KANSAS EVENING OREGON 06:00 WIB GEORGIA EVENING COLORADO EVENING MONTANA EVENING WUHAN MORNING ARIZONA EVENING KYOTO MORNING CALIFORNIA IDAHO EVENING OREGON 09:00 WIB JEJU MORNING INDIANA EVENING NEW JERSEY EVENING KENTUCKY EVENING IDAHO NIGHT VIRGINIA NIGHT TEXAS NIGHT (SENIN OFF) N CAROLINA EVENING PHUKET MIDDAY GEORGIA NIGHT ARIZONA NIGHT VENESIA OREGON 12:00 WIB BULLSEYE LAOS MIDDAY PYONGYANG WUHAN MIDDAY OTTAWA KYOTO MIDDAY PRAHA JEJU MIDDAY MOSKOW PHUKET EVENING KIEV MARINA BAY SANDS MOROCCO 18:00 WIB KAIRO LAOS EVENING BUENOS AIRES WUHAN EVENING BRUSSEL PCSO (MINGGU OFF) KYOTO EVENING ABU DHABI MOROCCO 21:00 WIB IDAHO MORNING ARIZONA MORNING TEXAS MOR /MINGGU OFF JEJU NIGHT MONTANA MORNING GEORGIA MIDDAY KANSAS MIDDAY NEW JERSEY MIDDAY COLORADO MIDDA PERATURAN 1. Minimal Anda telah berusia 18 tahun untuk membuat akun dan bermain dalam permainan situs ini. 2. Setiap member wajib menjaga kerahasiaan akun & password masing-masing. 3. Data yang diberikan pada saat mendaftar harus BENAR dan ASLI. 4. Pastikan Anda telah melakukan registrasi dengan data yang valid (BENAR dan ASLI) demi kenyamanan transaksi kedepan. Harap selalu perhatikan rekening yang AKTIF pada MENU DEPOSIT sebelum melakukan pengiriman dana deposit. 5. Saran Kami untuk selalu menyimpan Bukti Transfer agar memperlancar proses deposit jika dibutuhkan, gunakanlah nominal unik seperti : Rp 10.015,- atau Rp 10.451. 6. Deposit dan Withdraw hanya dapat diproses ke rekening yang terdaftar pada akun masing-masing. 7. Betting yang Normal adalah disaat pasaran betting sedang dibuka. Semua pembelian / bettingan yang telah dilakukan tidak dapat dibatalkan. 8. Kami akan melakukan tindakkan tegas terhadap member yang melakukan penipuan deposit berulang-ulang ataupun telah dinyatakan melakukan permainan yang tidak wajar. Semua tindak penipuan atau bentuk apapun yang merugikan pihak kami serta pihak-pihak lainnya maka Akun akan di BLOKIR tanpa pengecualian. 9. Pada permainan Ball 12D, Pembelian Angka 1 digit (0-9) dianggap 2 digit. 10. Keputusan www.NANA4D.com adalah sah. 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  • ROKOKSLOT DEPOSIT PULSA TANPA POTONGAN

    SLOT DEPOSIT PULSA TANPA POTONGAN ROKOKSLOT Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan Bagi anda yang ingin mencari website bermain Togel,Slot, Sportsbook( Bola ), Casino anda bisa bermain di situs rekomendasi kami di situs ROKOKSLOT Situs ROKOKSLOT situs paling lengkap di antara situs lain nya dengan bonus yang menajubkan dan bonus yang sangat banyak sangat menguntungkan jika anda bermain di situs ROKOKSLOT , dengan bonus new member dan bonus harian beserta Bonus Mingguan yang besar paling besar di anatara situs situs lain nya CARA MENDAFTAR DI ROKOKSLOT BANDAR SLOT PULSA TANPA POTONGAN 1. Langkah pertama : Cari Situs kami di Google di HP Anda atau laptop dengan cara KETIK "ROKOKSLOT ". 2. Langkah kedua : klik Menu Daftar / Register yang ada pada halaman utama ROKOKSLOT . 3. Langkah ketiga : pastikan anda memasukan semua data pribadi anda dengan benar dan aktif. 4. Langkah keempat : Lakukan deposit minimal 25.000 untuk bisa bermain di situs ROKOKSLOT . Link Togel Online Versi Mobile Wap / Seluler KLIK DISINI LIVE CHAT 24 JAM ROKOKSLOT KLIK DISINI Keuntungan Dalam Bermain Di ROKOKSLOT Situs Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan Bentuk keuntungan situs ROKOKSLOT Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan bagi pemain baru yang bergabung bersama situs daftar judi ROKOKSLOT Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan murah yaitu bisa memanfaatkan deposit sebagai modal dan bisa juga mengumpulkan hadiah sampai jumlah yang besar. Dalam sekali masuk halaman permainan slot online ROKOKSLOT Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan semua yang diperlukan bisa dilakukan secara mandiri dan lebih private. Transaksi finansial dibutuhkan pada saat mengisi saldo untuk taruhan. Tanpa perlu transfer dari ATM, saat ini sudah tersedia pengisian menggunakan slot Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan Untuk bisa mendapatkan bonus yang tersedia, pemain hanya perlu memenuhi syarat dan peraturan yang berlaku pada promo Slot,Casino,Dan Sportsbook Melihat Promo Syarat Dan Ketentuan yang berlaku anda bisa mengklik menu Promo pada bagian atas situs di sebelah Refferal Jadi, bila dibandingkan dengan bermain Judi offline atau bermain judi secara langsung dengan cara bermain tatap muka . Maka bermain secara online bisa disimpulkan lebih menguntungkan bagi para player Slot atau Casino. Oleh sebab itu juga, tidak heran jika pada saat ini. lebih banyak pemain Slot atau Casino lebih suka bermain secara online. Selain bisa memeriksa deposit dan withdraw secara Real Time dengan cara mengecek di History Transaksi , Teman teman juga bisa bermain casino secara online dengan nyaman dan aman dikarenakan situs ROKOKSLOT situs slot dan casino deposit pulsa tanpa potongan situs terpercaya dan situs terbesar di Indonesia Apa yang di maksudkan Dengan DEPOSIT PULSA TANPA POTONGAN ? Dimasukan Deposit Pulsa Tanpa Potongan yaitu Deposit pulsa biasanya di BO Online lain nya atau Situs Lain nya jika deposit pulsa pada situs lain itu dikenakan Potongan setau kami dengan potongan 10% dan itu sangat sayang sekali di lakukan jika member deposit pulsa dikareanakan saldo yang masuk tidak sesuai dengan yang di depositkan dengan menggunakan pulsa. 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Seperti yang kita ketahui semua, bahwa Indonesia menentang adanya segala jenis praktik perjudian secara langsung. Jadi bisa dibilang bermain Slot dan Casino juga termasuk dalam praktek perjudian yang dilarang. Oleh karena itu, Slot online menjadi alternatif paling tepat untuk bisa dengan mudah bermain Slot dan Casino yang ternama dengan provider yang sudah Legal dan Fair To Play atau bermain Secara Adil tanpa settingan apapun Apakah Perbedaan Antara Bermain Casino Online dan Offline ? 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